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دوشنبه 18 آذر 1398
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Saffarid Dynasty (861–1002)

The Saffarid dynasty arose in Sistan, a remote and turbulent province that had always been difficult for the caliphs to govern because of the large number of Kharijites, a militant sectarian group that had turned against other Muslims in the time of Ali, who had taken refuge there. Taherid efforts to extend their control over the area provoked a reaction that united the Kharijites and indigenous viGilante bands (ayyars) under the banner of an adventurer of plebeian social origin, Yaʿqub the Coppersmith, and his brothers. Yaʿqub drove out the Taherid governor, consolidated his authority in Sistan, launched raids on neighboring non-Muslim territories, and began to expand into Khorasan, Kerman, Fars, and other provinces. In 873, he overthrew the Taherids, and it appeared he might even capture Baghdad, but he was repulsed by an Abbasid force in 876. The Saffarids remained a major power until about 911 and a regional one for centuries after that.

The Saffarids are of considerable significance in two respects: They challenged the deferential attitude toward the caliphs that had long prevailed in Iran, and they showed that it was possible to develop a separate, regional, populist cultural identity that could be both Iranian and Islamic. The Saffarids sometimes sent gifts to the Abbasid caliphs, and the caliphs made tactical offers to recognize Saffarid “governorship,” but the two obviously detested and distrusted each other. Yaʿqub scornfully derided the way the Abbasids had treated their clients, and he did not hesitate to clash with them in pursuit of his own interests.

 Refrence(s):

- Elton L. Daniel (2001). The History of Iran Greenwood Histories of the Modern. U.K. London. Greenwood Publishing Group. P. p.p. 68-80.

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