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جمعه 22 آذر 1398
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Tomb Of Hafez, Shiraz

Amir Chakhmaq Square, Yazd

Ghaznavid Dynasty (977-1186)

The Ghaznavid dynasty was of Turkish origin. It was founded by Sebuktigin, a former Turkish slave who was recognized by the Samanids as governor of Ghazna (modern Ghazni, in Afghanistan). As the Samanid dynasty weakened, Sebuktigin consolidated his position and expanded his domains as far as the Indian border. His son Mahmud continued the expansionist policy, and during his reign, Ghaznavid power reached its zenith. Mahmud created an empire that stretched from the Oxus to the Indian Ocean. In the west he captured (from the Buyids) the Iranian cities of Ray, Isfahan, and Hamadan. A devout Muslim, Mahmud was the first to carry the banner of Islam into the heart of India. Although the Ghaznavids were proud of their Turkic descent, Mahmud encouraged the use of Persian, and the greatest Persian epic, Shah-Nameh was completed by Ferdowsi at his court.

Among the other great Persians at Mahmud’s court were Biruni, an outstanding scholar of encyclopedic knowledge, and Abu’l-fazl Bayhaqi, the writer of a remarkable history of the Ghaznavids, the first major prose work in New Persian.

Mahmud’s son, Masud, was unable to preserve the power of the Ghaznavid Empire. Challenged by the Saljuq Turks, he lost all his territories in Iran and Central Asia, but retained possession of eastern Afghanistan and northern India, where the Ghaznavids continued to rule until 1186.

Refrence(s):

- Beheshti, Oksana (2003). Travel guide to Isfahan, Kashan and more. Iran. Tehran. Rozaneh publication. P. 21-33

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