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دوشنبه 18 آذر 1398
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IRAN
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Sight seeing of Iran

Tomb Of Hafez, Shiraz

Amir Chakhmaq Square, Yazd

Mongol Rulers of Iran (1219-1353)

Mongol Occupation was disastrous to Iran. Numerous cities were razed, and a large number of people (particularly males) were killed. The Kharazm-Shah could not oppose the Mongol hordes led by Genghiz Khan. The last Kharazm-Shah’s prince, Jalal-al-Din, tried to restore the empire but failed to unite the Iranian regions, although by that time Genghiz Khan, who had withdrawn to Mongolia, was dead. Iran was left divided between Mongol agents and local adventurers, both of whom profited from the lack of order.

A second Mongol invasion began when Genghiz Khan’s grandson, Hulegu Khan, destroyed the Ismailis fortress at Alamut. He then besieged Baghdad, where the last Abbasid caliph was executed by being kicked to deaths. Hulegu hoped consolidate Mongo rule over western Asia and to extend the Mongol Empire as far as the Mediterranean. He made Iran his base, but the Mamluks of Egypt (1250-1517) prevented him and his successors from achieving their imperial goal.
Instead, a Mongol dynasty, the Il-khanid s or “Deputy Khans” to the Great Khan in China, was established in Iran to attempt repair of the damage of the first Mongol invasion. They made Azarbayjan their center and chose Tabriz as the first capital until
SolTaniyeh was built early in the 14th century. A later Mongol ruler, Ḡazan khan, and his famous Iranian vizier of Jewish descent, Rashid-al-Din Fazlollah, brought Iran a partial revival.

Ḡazan khan was the first Mongol ruler to adopt Islam. His successor to throne was Oljeytu (1304-16). Oljeytu changed his religious affiliations several times. A great grandson of Hulegu, founder of the Il-khanid dynasty, Oljeytu was baptized a Christian and given the name Nicholas by his mother.

As a youth, he adhered to shamanism but was later, apparently under the influence of one of his wives converted to Sunni Islam, taking the name Mohammad Khodabandeh. During the winter of 1307-08, a bitter religious feud ensued between the adherents of the Hanafit and Shafi’i schools of Sunni Islamic law. This so disgusted Oljeytu and caused him to conver back to shamanism, but that course proved politically impossible. Greatly influenced by the Shai theologian, Ibn al-Mutahhar al-Hilli, he came to embrace the Shai religion. On his return from a visit to the tomb of Imam Ali in Iraq, he proclaimed Shai Islam to be the state of religion. Oljeytu’s conversion gave rise to great unrest, and civil war was imminent when he died in 1316. His son and successor, Abu Said, reconverted to Sunni Islam and averted war, but during his reign factional disputes and internal disturbances became rampant.

The Il-khanid line was interrupted by the death of Abu Said, who died without leaving an heir, and Iran again lapsed into petty dynasties-the Jalayerids, Injus, and Mozaffarids.

 Refrence(s):

- Beheshti, Oksana (2003). Travel guide to Isfahan, Kashan and more. Iran. Tehran. Rozaneh publication. P. 21-33

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