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سه شنبه 19 آذر 1398
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IRAN
Azaan Timing

 

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Sight seeing of Iran

Tomb Of Hafez, Shiraz

Amir Chakhmaq Square, Yazd

Pahlavi Dynasty (1925-1979) and the Islamic Republic

During the reign of Reza Shah, a number of reforms were attempted to lay the basis of a modern state. Reza Shah initially enjoyed wide support, but some of his actions, such as taking away effective power from the Parliament, muzzling the press, and killing or exiling many of his former followers as well as of the influential religious clerics, soon led to considerable dissatisfaction in the country. His support of Hitler’s Germany in WWII occasioned an Anglo-Soviet invasion of Iran.

Reza Shah was forced to resign in favor of his son Mohammad Reza, and then he was exiled to an island off the coast of Africa.

Mohammad Reza Shah Pahiavi faced the difficult task of exercising his power over the large country. During his rule, his main initiatives included the land reform and the campaign against illiteracy. The country’s power structure was also radically changed as part of the program called the “White Revolution”.

Soon after the war, the Majles passed an act, introduced by Mohammad Mosaddeq, nationalizing Iranian oil, and the British oil company withdrew. This successful government, however, was brought down in the coup d’état, staged on the American-British initiative.

Many of Mohammad Reza Shah’s policies had often been opposed by clerical leaders. The arrest of Ayatollah Khomeini touched off rioting. The riots were suppressed by force, and Ayatollah Khomeini was first to Turkey and then to Iraq and France.

From there he coordinated an upsurge of opposition, demanding the Shah’s abdication. Fifteen days before Ayatollah Khomeini’s return the Shah fled Iran. The Regency and Supreme Army Councils which were established to govern in the Shah’s absence proved unable to function, and the government headed by the Prime Minister Shahpur Bakhtiyar, could not control the country crowds of more than 1,000,000 demonstrated in Tehran in support of Ayatollah Khomeini. The Islamic Revolution and the national referendum that followed it the proclaimed the foundation of the Islamic Republic of Iran.

Refrence(s):

- Beheshti, Oksana (2003). Travel guide to Isfahan, Kashan and more. Iran. Tehran. Rozaneh publication. P. 21-33

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