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سه شنبه 19 آذر 1398
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Sight seeing of Iran

Tomb Of Hafez, Shiraz

Amir Chakhmaq Square, Yazd

Early Civilizations in Iran

The plain of Iran is among the most ancient civilizations of the world. Some objects discovered by archeologist in Iran date back to 10,000 B.C. The hunting tools and stone articles discovered in various caves, such as the Pabda Cave in the highland of Chaharmahal & Bakhtiari province, reveals that human life existed in the Iranian plateau during the Paleolithic Period.

 

The metallic artifacts discovered from the Guti and Lullubi people in the northern areas of Zagross Mountains show that these people knew how to use metal in 3,000 B.C. During this period villages and small towns were also established.

Life during the Neolithic period, however, is much better known. Considerable geological and natural evidence has proven that Iran was home to one of mankind’s first major cultures, ahead of every other part of the world except Egypt, Mesopotamia, and India. Significant shifts in tool manufacture, settlement patterns, and subsistence methods, including domestication of plants and animals, characterize the Neolithic Iranian settlements, all of which date wholly or in part from the 8th and 7th millennia. Iranians were probably the first to cultivate wheat and dates, and to tame camels and sheep. The existence of rich mines in Iran can be an indication that metal was excavated and processed here since ancient times. One of the recently excavated (2006) archaeological sites- Arisman - has proved to be one of the world’s earliest centers of the metallurgical industry. Arisman is located in Natanz County, Isfahan Province, the population of which was 1,745, in 489 families. By approximately the 6th millennium B.C. village farming was widespread over much of the Iranian plateau and in lowland Khuzestan.

Among others, Sialk on the rim of the central salt desert has yielded evidence of fairly sophisticated patterns of agricultural life.

Having begun in the Paleolithic era, Iran’s first vigorous growth had developed by the 3rd millennium B.C. into a civilization of great sophistication - Elam.

Iran and Prehistoric Periods

c. 8000-7500 B.C.

Pre-pottery Neolithic Period

c. 8000- B.C. First settlements on the Iranian plateau; the earliest domestication of sheep and goats in Iran

c. 7500-5000 B.C.

Pottery Neolithic period

c. 6300 B.C. First evidence of copper smelting in Iran

c. 5000-3500 B.C.

Chalcolithic Period

c. 5000 B.C. A wine jar discovered at the Hajji Firuz Mound proves to be the world’s oldest evidence of wine-making

c. 4000 B.C. Sialk Mounds yield some of the most ancient remains of settled life on the Iranian plateau

c. 3500-2000 B.C. – Early Bronze Age

 

3100-2700 B.C.

proto-Elamite period

2348 B.C. year of Flood, 600 years after the birth of Noah, as will reckoned by biblical chronology

c. 2700-1500 B.C.

Old Elamite Period

c. 1700 B.C. Judaism is founded by Abraham

c. 1450-1250 B.C. – Iron Age I

 

c. 1500-1000 B.C.

Middle Elamite Period

c. 1340-1300 B.C. A new capital and religious complex, including a ziggurat, is built by King Untash-Gal at Chogha Zanbil

c. 1250-800 B.C. – Iron Age II

 

c. 1000 B.C. – Nebuchadnezzar I of Babylon invades Elam, plundering the countryside and destroying Susa

c. 1000 B.C. – The Iron Age that began more than 400 years before the Near East moves to Europe.

c. 800-550 – B.C. Iron Age III

 

1000-539 B.C. –

Neo-Elamite period

961-93I B.C. - Rule of Judea’s King, prophet Solomon

776 B.C.- Greece’s first recorded Olympic Games are held

753 B.C.- The city of Rome is founded

 

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