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جمعه 22 آذر 1398
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Sight seeing of Iran

Tomb Of Hafez, Shiraz

Amir Chakhmaq Square, Yazd

Carpets and Rugs

Iranians were among the first carpet weavers of the ancient world. The earliest known Persian carpet, called “Pazyrik” was discovered by a Russian Professor Rudenko in the frozen tombs of Scythian chiefs in Siberia, and is estimated to date front at least 500 B.C. It is now kept in the hermitage Museum of St. Petersburg in Russia. Today carpet weaving is by far the most wide spread handicraft in Iran.

Iran produces more carpets than all the other carpet making centers of the world put together carpets have deservedly received international renown for their and artistic splendor. Iranian carpets are usually made of wool. In the Hamadan and Kordestan (کردستان) regions, camel hair is also used. Silk is frequently employed to make very finely knotted carpets. Traditional Iranian carpets are hand-knotted. Each carpet consists of strings of weft, and thousands of knots the carpet’s warp. There are two main kinds of knots: the Turkish knot and the Persian knot. The Turkish knot is done by crochet. It is more solid and leaves two wool or silk threads on show, between two threads of chain. The Persian knot is done by hand. It is used for very fine carpets and leaves only on show. The closer the knots, the finer the design which can be displayed.
Professionals usually make finely knotted Persian carpets, while nomads make coarsely knotted ones. The most coarsely knotted carpets come from Kordestan and the finest from Kashan (کاشان). In addition to usual carpets, nomads weave “gabeh” (گبه) (a rug with very long pile) and “gelim” (گلیم) or “kilim” (a pile less rug). 
The motifs of Iranian carpets are numerous; the most common are medallions, arabesque, flowers linked by tendrils animals and people, and also geometric patterns.

As one would expect, the carpets made for Abbas the Great were large in scale and grandiose in design. The “vase” pattern, also called Shah Abbasi, contains great palmettos, huge leaves, flower strewn meadows, and sometimes animals. The so-called “Polonaise” carpets, most of which have found their way to Europe, are enriched with threads of silk, gold-covered silver, and silver.

 

The predominantly geometric themes of earlier Iranian carpets were not abandoned entirely but tended to be replaced by plant, animal, and occasional human themes; medallions and Shah Abbasi flowers are the most usual motifs. The Safavid carpets are also characterized by arabesque tendrils, and margins in colors which contrast with those of the center. 

In other words, while architecture and painting were the main artistic vehicles of the Safavids, the making of textiles and carpets was also of great importance. In the 16th century, hitherto primarily nomadic crafts were transformed into royal industries by the creation of court workshops. The best known carpets of this period, dated 1539, come from the Mausoleum of Shaikh Safi-al-Din (شیخ صفی الدین) Safavid in Ardabil and, in the opinion of many experts, represent the summit of achievements in carpet design. The larger of the two is now kept in London’s Victoria and Albert Museum, while the other can be seen at the Los Angeles County Museum.

Shah Tahmasb admired carpets so much that he learnt weaving techniques and designed several very refined models himself. Shah Abbas developed the use of gold and silver threads in carpets, culminating in the great coronation carpet now held in the Rosenberg Castle in Copenhagen.
 Refrence(s):

- Beheshti, Oksana (2003). Travel guide to Isfahan, Kashan and more. Iran. Tehran. Rozaneh publication.

 

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