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دوشنبه 25 آذر 1398
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Caravansary

Caravansary was a building that served as the inn of the Orient, providing accommodation for commercial, pilgrim, postal, and especially official travelers. The term karvan-sara was commonly used in Iran and is preserved in several place names.

Caravansaries could be established by religious foundations on pilgrim routes or by merchants’ guilds, as well as by rulers and notables on normal commercial routes, which were often identical with the pilgrim routes (in only rare instances are original building inscriptions preserved in situ). In addition, especially in the reign of Shah ʿAbbas, when the road system was systematically extended throughout Iran, the court at Isfahan seems to have built many caravansaries along the new roads: those linking Isfahan to Faraḥabad on the Caspian Sea (Kleiss, 1980); those leading from Bandar-e Abbas on the Persian Gulf coast to Lar (either directly or through Bandar-e Lenga) and Shiraz, to Sirjan and Yazd, and to Baft and Kerman; and those from Isfahan to Hamadan, from Isfahan to Mashhad via Yazd and Tabas, from Isfahan to Kerman via Yazd, from Kerman to Mashhad, from Qazvin to Shiraz via Sava and Isfahan, from Qazvin to Jolfa via Tabriz, and from Tehran to Mashhad (Kleiss, 1987; 1981, pp. 203ff.).

The size of the caravansaries, especially those built in courtyard form, depended upon the frequency of traffic on the different roads. The prime considerations in construction were function and the need for space, not ostentation. By the size of the buildings the relative significance of the roads can thus be measured.

From the number of surviving caravansaries (by 1366 /1987 some 465 buildings had been systematically measured) and from their sizes it is clear that in Safavid and Qajar times there was a state architectural department that was specifically concerned with the construction of caravansaries and stations on the overland routes. Furthermore, in the cities a number of caravansaries were erected as lodging houses, depots, and commercial offices in the vicinity of the Bazaars. They resembled the road caravansaries in form, except that most had two stories, whereas the latter had only one.

 Refrence(s):

Encyclopedia of Iranica. Caravansary. Available From:

http://www.iranicaonline.org/articles/caravansary

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