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The Art and Architecture and Architecture of Sassanid

In 224 AC Ardeshir Babakan arose from Fars and took over Ardavan V, the last king of Parthian. Ardeshir Babakan established the Sassanid kingdom, which had roots in religion and culture, from Syria to the North West of India, and till 22/642 AD, they powerfully reigned vast areas of Syria till south east India. He moved beyond his geographical borders. Sassanid's paintings and art influence Asia. It also had a great significance on the art of China, Byzantine, and even France.

In their attempt to renovate Achaemenides' art, Samanids did not limit themselves to imitate other styles. Their art shows creativity and has elements which was later developed after the intrance of Arabs. After Alexander took over Persia, Greek art found its way to Asia and changed the art of the region in many ways. Although Asia imitated the appearance of Greek art, they never accepted the theory and spirit of it. During the reign of Parthian, Asians applied Greek art and paraphrased it to their own accord. And throughout the Sassanids era they continued to interfere and combine Greek art with Persian art even with the nationalistic reactions. The religious architecture of the Sassanid era is limited to buildings such as Zoroastrian temples and did not developed further more. Most of the Sassanids castles that were founded in the late 100 years excavations show the Arsacid's architectural elements such as brick-bonded cradle vaults, balconies, yards and porches. A high arch in wide hall in Tisfun palace (close to the Tigris coast near Bagdad) is tightened on an arch of more than 25 meters arch span, which is a sign of technical development of architecture, in the reign of Shahpour I period in 260 B.C.

In Firuzabad, there is common hall which its ceiling is covered with a broad dome. Without doubt Persia is the master of creating round domes on pillars or a square basis with the utilization of corners. Moreover, the style of cross vaults on thick arches used in Karkheh Ivan (near Shoosh (Susa), with extraordinary solidity) probably belongs to the 4th century, this was quite common during Sassanid period before its appearance in Romanesque and Gothic architecture. In Samanids architecture, stone was used alongside with bricks and the facade of the huge walls was decorated by moulding and stucco decorations.

Thirty reliefs carved on cliffs have remained from Naghsh-e-Rostam, Tagh-Bostan, and Bishapur and were all created in the Achaemanids style, which they are all different from their similar works in Greek and Roman style. Some of them are wholly embossed like real status standing on their feet and some of the other are graffito pictures and their major goal is to honor the commander.

In some of the reliefs, the commanders token were given by Ahoura Mazda to the king, the most likely scene is, the king's victory at war or hunting scenes, stone carvings of Nagsh Rostam (valerian) shows the Roman emperor who kneels down as a slave under the horse of Shahpour l. In this trace of work, holy people (Ahoura Mazda, Anahita, and Mitra) or the king himself were regarded by a higher measurement than the other people presented in draw.

 Although human Figures in the forms such as arm joints on the upper part of the body is done roughly and unskilled, but in more developed traces of works such as the reliefs in Tagh Bostan (5th/11th century) The softness and freedom of the horse and clothes movements are shown more skillfully than those of Parthian.

In the art of the Sassanids, portrait paintings were not common on embossed works, coins, and metal plates, and the kings were only distinctable by the type of their crowns.

In minor art, Sassanid’s metalwork reached top perfection and even in south Russia there are remains of work s such as trays, embossed plates with various paintings which represented their unprecedented technical skill. Bronze or silver casting was also used for making plates, jars, cups and drinking vessels which were made like animals and birds. These vessels are decorated with different methods such as embossing, gilding, carving and enamelling. The scenes belonged to “Ahoura Mazda” Zoroastrian (Zardosht angels, hunting scenes with the king in the center, imaginary animals or creatures such as griffins, and similar to those. These magnificent shapes and patterns were also applied on textiles and silks.

One of the most defining characteristics of Sassanid's art is the identical patterns and decorative designs which have no doubt influenced Islamic art. Well-organized patterns of animals, birds, and plants which are arranged face to face or side by side similar to patterns on national or family flags, motifs of the tree of life, which has a long history in the Near East, also Figures of ordinary and imaginary animals, such as peacocks, dragons, and also the use of identical geometrical shapes were all common decorative elements applied in this era.

 Refrence(s):

-Shayestehfar. Mahnaz. (2007). an Introduction to Persian Islamic Art. Iran. Institute of Islamic Art Studies. P. 17

 

 

 

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