فارسي
جمعه 22 آذر 1398
فارسي|Home|About Culture House|Language Classes|Contact Us|Archived News|Sitemap
IRAN
Azaan Timing

 

Events
Sight seeing of Iran

Tomb Of Hafez, Shiraz

Amir Chakhmaq Square, Yazd

The Art and Architecture of Saljuqs

Saljuqs were Turkish tribes that lived in Kyrgyzstan hills. They were politically against Shia and were supporting Abbasids. At this Abbasids had lost their political power and were with the new government. Moreover in 447/1055 A.D. Toghrol Bayk announced his leadership in Baghdad and managed to gain support from all the Middle East.

Many artistic activities that existed in most of the courts lead to many positive results in Iran, Mesopotamia and Asia Minor. Although the Turks had hardly produced any artistic and creative work, but they supported the local artistic styles and ordered various work. Furthermore, their political point of view influenced their artistic styles, for example, they believed in showing their power through massive buildings and added more glamour to the architecture, and moreover, one major factor in their work was the touch of Islamic forms.

 At this point, with the foundation of the Saljuq era, mosques and shrines became one of the most important parts of Islamic architecture. This was made in two different styles: tower and dome shape shrines. Most of these shrines could be found in the eastern part of Persia and were mostly made according to order of Persian or Turkish kings or leaders. One of the most defining buildings of this era is Gunbade Kavous built in 375/985 A.D. in Gorgan. It is constructed on a star foundation and has a cone shape roof.

Later on in west parts of Persia, many other buildings were constructed with the same foundation. Momeneh Khatun shrine (582/1186) in Nakhjavan is one of the most beautiful memorial buildings of this era.

Round towers with cone shape roofs endured a special popularity in Persia. Smooth or polyhedron towers with an inside dome, were made to look like a tent. Radkan tower near the town of Rey in Tehran is one of the examples. Turkish leaders insisted that their tombs, which were considered as an eternity resting place, made similar to tents.

The second type of religious buildings that Saljuqs added to the architecture of that era were religious schools. The purpose of these schools in comparison with universities (Dar-al-Elm) was spreading traditional lectures and educating clerics and scholars. It was only after the Turks invasion that these schools started to act more formal. Khajeh Nezam al- Molk, the minster, was one of the people who managed to establish many school in Neishabour, Baghdad and Tus. Unfortunately none of these schools are remained today.

Many of the castles built in this era, mainly in Neishabour and Marv, have been destroyed. Even other castles from other eras have also been completely destroyed. Caravanserais were the most important building in Saljuq era. They were built close to the roads and later were changed into Tea Houses. Some of the primitive forms of these Caravanserais were built in Persia. In all Saljuqs buildings such as mosques, schools, Caravanserais and and castles, the threshold was the most important part of the building. Thresholds with its individual designs and decorations gave the buildings a special appearance.

The type of construction materials are classified as the second main point. Instead of massive Persian “eivan”s, small stone gateways which their special decorations give them glory and magnificence can be noticed. One of the most influential inventions of Saljuq's era was covering the surface with tiles. After using colorful tiles, which were popular at that time, glazed ceramic tiles became fashionable. At the beginning only four colors were applied dark and, light blue, brown and black, afterwards, more colors were added.

 The mosque's alters (mihrab) were mainly covered with plaster or blue-cobalt colored tiles. One of these alters is kept in Islamic department of Berlin museum, and goes back to 624/1226. It belongs to Kashan square mosque.

 

Kashan is the birthplace of Persian tile-makers. Samples of Saljuq paintings, are wall paintings with human images, and painted ceramics with mythological inspirations. These ceramics show the Saljuqs miniature style in sixth/twelfth to seventh thirteenth centuries. Pink, olive green, blue, purple, brown, black, and golden colors were expertly used on white or turquoise colored backgrounds.

Stone work and plaster moulding had a great role in Saljuqs architectural exterior and interior designs. Although various styles were used in painting the human Figures and were created by separate artists and different places, but they all have similarities. The application of Nasta'liq and Kufi inscriptions and Islamic ornament designs are some of those common elements. One of the most beautiful inscription of this era is the Madreseh of Khargerd in Khorasan. The name of the minister of Sultan-alb-arsalan, is engraved on it in Kufi script. Applying two or three different decorative layers is a defining characteristic of the Saljuq era and continues future to Mongol and Timurid era.

In the Saljuq period, Persian pottery-makers created magnificent potteries which were famous for their beauty and style. Most of the forms and pottery techniques belonged to previous periods and were gradually developed by pottery makers in this era.

Techniques such as Painting on or under glaze, in the form of mono or multi colored, with engraving and cutting ¡n different centers of pottery, developed in this era. The new form of decoration such as the remarkable and effective method of lattice work was created in Rey, which was the most important center of making the pottery objects. Other important cities that were famous for their pottery were Kashan, Sultan Abad, Saveh, and Neishabour.

Potteries according to their structure were divided into the following groups:

1. Pottery with carved, engraved and painted decorations

2. Pottery and tiles with luster decorative paintings

3. Ceramics with multicolor glaze.

 

1. Pottery with carved, engraved and painted decorations

Persian pottery makers, particularly in the Abbasid period, tried to imitate Chinese plates. The creamy and white jars and cups found in Rey, have the transparent of Chinese objects. The white structure of these potteries is harder and thinner than those made in the third and fourth/ninth and tenth centuries. This shows that pottery making had developed throughout the decades. The decoration of these plates are in the form of cutting, engraving and using a slight embossing, often punctured or latticed.

Lattice work was applied not only on white but also on blue and green glazed plates in the fifth/eleventh to seventh/ thirteenth centuries.

2. Pottery and tiles with luster decorative paintings

Saljuq pottery makers restored the method of glazed potteries in the Abbasid period, relating to third/ninth century. Persian glaze vessels in the Saljuq period had numerous colors. Colors such as golden green, blue or dark brown, were used turquoise blue on a white glaze can be identified. The vessels or glazed tiles which were used for walls or altars were decorated with beautiful and various explanations. The drawings of Saljuq pottery, mainly consisted of birds, animals or plants. In one vessel, probably the oldest one, decorative design related to whole glazed base work is seen and is related to the sixth/twelfth century. Glazed plates from mid sixth/twelfth century, shows Saljuqs art at its highest quality. It contains many small decorative shapes, animal and bird Figures, covering the surface of the plate with scripts written in larger size around the edges.

3. Ceramics with multicolor glaze.

Persian pottery makers developed, with skill and expertise, a new method of drawing with various colors on a white, blue or turquoise base. In a written discourse which goes back to 701/1301, two types of ceramic glaze in Kashan is mentioned. One, which is painted with golden layers or in yellow, white, red or black painted in multicolor. After being painted, both types are placed into clay vessels, and for the second time they are heated for twelve hours. The decorations on the multi colored vessels were done under the name of Minaii (enamel) and were mostly used for princes and nobles. The decorations consisted mainly of human scenes such as hunting, riding, standing or seated Figures, courts and Shah-Nameh scenes. These paintings were usually drawn in small scales or with one or two large images.

Refrence(s):

Shayestehfar. Mahnaz. (2007). an Introduction to Persian Islamic Art. Iran. Institute of Islamic Art Studies.

 

Vote
Disable
Visitors` Statistics
 Visitors of page : 659
 Visitors of day : 38
 Visitors sum : 432930
 Online visitors : 1
 Page load : 3.1719